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Starch‐binding domains are noncatalytic carbohydrate‐binding modules that mediate binding to granular starch. The starch‐binding domains from the carbohydrate‐binding module family 45 (CBM45, ) are found as N‐terminal tandem repeats in a small number of enzymes, primarily from photosynthesizing organisms. Isolated domains from representatives of each of the two classes of enzyme carrying CBM45‐type domains, the Solanum tuberosumα‐glucan, water dikinase and the Arabidopsis thaliana plastidial α‐amylase 3, were expressed as recombinant proteins and characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to verify the conformational integrity of an isolated CBM45 domain, revealing a surprisingly high thermal stability (Tm of 84.8 °C). The functionality of CBM45 was demonstrated in planta by yellow/green fluorescent protein fusions and transient expression in tobacco leaves. Affinities for starch and soluble cyclodextrin starch mimics were measured by adsorption assays, surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry analyses. The data indicate that CBM45 binds with an affinity of about two orders of magnitude lower than the classical starch‐binding domains from extracellular microbial amylolytic enzymes. This suggests that low‐affinity starch‐binding domains are a recurring feature in plastidial starch metabolism, and supports the hypothesis that reversible binding, effectuated through low‐affinity interaction with starch granules, facilitates dynamic regulation of enzyme activities and, hence, of starch metabolism.
Original languageEnglish
JournalF E B S Journal
Publication date2011
Volume278
Issue7
Pages1175-1185
ISSN1742-464X
DOIs
StatePublished
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 11

Keywords

  • a-glucan, a-amylase, Starch-binding domain, Starch metabolism, Carbohydrate-binding module, Water dikinase
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