Simulation of Second Harmonic Ultrasound Fields

Publication: Research - peer-reviewArticle in proceedings – Annual report year: 2010



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A non-linear ultrasound imaging simulation software should be capable of simulating the non-linear fields for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, and attenuation. At present, a major issue is the overlong simulation time of the non-linear software. An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) using a quasi-linear approximation for solving the Westervelt equation can simulate the second harmonic pressure at any distance. Therefore, it shortens the execution time compared with the operator splitting method. The purpose of this paper is to implement the monochromatic solution for the second harmonic component based on ASA and Field II, and to compare with results from the simulation program Abersim. A linear array transducer with a center frequency of 4 MHz and 64 active elements is used as the transmitting source. The initial plane is 5 mm away from the transducer surface, and the fundamental pressure is calculated by Field II. The second harmonic pressure in k-space along the propagating direction is calculated as an auto-convolution of the fundamental pressure multiplied by an exponential propagating coefficient. In this case, the second harmonic pressure can be calculated using ASA for any plane parallel to the initial plane. In the focal plane (elevation-lateral) at 60 mm from the transducer surface, calculated by ASA, the RMS errors for the fundamental component are 2.66% referred to Field II and 4.28% referred to Abersim. For the second harmonic component, the RMS error is 0.91% referred to Abersim.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium
Publication date2010
ISBN (print)978-1-4577-0380-5
StatePublished - 2010
Event2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium - San Diego, California, United States


Conference2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, California
Internet address

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  • Angular spectrum approach, Field II, Abersim, Second harmonic pressure
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