Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2012

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Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate. / Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 23, 2012, p. 8289-8297.

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2012

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Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette / Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 23, 2012, p. 8289-8297.

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2012

Bibtex

@article{653780e9cae44b0db4783370a6bbd8a0,
title = "Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
author = "Mika Frankel and Gabriel Bekö and Michael Timm and Sine Gustavsen and Hansen, {Erik Wind} and Madsen, {Anne Mette}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1128/AEM.02069-12",
volume = "78",
number = "23",
pages = "8289--8297",
journal = "Applied and Environmental Microbiology",
issn = "0099-2240",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

A1 - Frankel,Mika

A1 - Bekö,Gabriel

A1 - Timm,Michael

A1 - Gustavsen,Sine

A1 - Hansen,Erik Wind

A1 - Madsen,Anne Mette

AU - Frankel,Mika

AU - Bekö,Gabriel

AU - Timm,Michael

AU - Gustavsen,Sine

AU - Hansen,Erik Wind

AU - Madsen,Anne Mette

PB - American Society for Microbiology

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - <p>Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors,<em> n</em> = 127; outdoors, <em>n </em>= 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.</p>

AB - <p>Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors,<em> n</em> = 127; outdoors, <em>n </em>= 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m<sup>3</sup>). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.</p>

U2 - 10.1128/AEM.02069-12

DO - 10.1128/AEM.02069-12

JO - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

JF - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

SN - 0099-2240

IS - 23

VL - 78

SP - 8289

EP - 8297

ER -