Quantized conductance in atom-sized wires between two metals

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 1995

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@article{d4785d1737d34d51a600085fae250d78,
title = "Quantized conductance in atom-sized wires between two metals",
keywords = "ADHESION, TRANSPORT, SCALE, TRANSITION, POINT CONTACTS, SURFACES, BALLISTIC-RESISTANCE, SCANNING-TUNNELING-MICROSCOPY, STEPS, CONSTRICTIONS",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
author = "Mads Brandbyge and Jakob Schiøtz and Sørensen, {Mads Reinholdt} and Per Stoltze and Jacobsen, {Karsten Wedel} and Nørskov, {Jens Kehlet} and Olesen, {Laurits Højgaard} and E. Laegsgaard and I. Stensgaard and Flemming Besenbacher",
note = "Copyright (1995) by the American Physical Society.",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevB.52.8499",
volume = "52",
number = "11",
pages = "8499--8514",
journal = "Physical Review B Condensed Matter",
issn = "0163-1829",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantized conductance in atom-sized wires between two metals

A1 - Brandbyge,Mads

A1 - Schiøtz,Jakob

A1 - Sørensen,Mads Reinholdt

A1 - Stoltze,Per

A1 - Jacobsen,Karsten Wedel

A1 - Nørskov,Jens Kehlet

A1 - Olesen,Laurits Højgaard

A1 - Laegsgaard,E.

A1 - Stensgaard,I.

A1 - Besenbacher,Flemming

AU - Brandbyge,Mads

AU - Schiøtz,Jakob

AU - Sørensen,Mads Reinholdt

AU - Stoltze,Per

AU - Jacobsen,Karsten Wedel

AU - Nørskov,Jens Kehlet

AU - Olesen,Laurits Højgaard

AU - Laegsgaard,E.

AU - Stensgaard,I.

AU - Besenbacher,Flemming

PB - American Physical Society

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - We present experimental and theoretical results for the conductance and mechanical properties of atom-sized wires between two metals. The experimental part is based on measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where a point contact is created by indenting the tip into a gold surface. When the tip is retracted, a 10-20 Angstrom long nanowire is formed. Our measurements of the conductance of nanowires show clear signs of a quantization in units of 2e(2)/h. The scatter around the integer values increases considerably with the number of quanta, and typically it is not possible to observe more than up to four quanta in these experiments. A detailed discussion is given of the statistical methods used in the analysis of the experimental data. The theoretical part of the paper addresses some questions posed by the experiment: Why can conductance quantization be observed, what is the origin of the scatter in the experimental data, and what is the origin of the scaling of the scattering with the number of conductance quanta? The theoretical discussion is based on a free-electron-like model where scattering from the boundary of the nanowire is included. The configurations of the nanowires are deduced from molecular dynamics simulations, which also give information about the mechanical properties of the system. We show that such a model can account semiquantitatively for several of the observed effects. One of the main conclusions of the theoretical analysis is that,; due to the plastic deformation of the nanowires formed by the STM, the typical length scale of the variations in the shape of the boundary is not an atomic radius but rather bye times that value. This is the reason why scattering is sufficiently small to make conductance quantization observable by STM.

AB - We present experimental and theoretical results for the conductance and mechanical properties of atom-sized wires between two metals. The experimental part is based on measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where a point contact is created by indenting the tip into a gold surface. When the tip is retracted, a 10-20 Angstrom long nanowire is formed. Our measurements of the conductance of nanowires show clear signs of a quantization in units of 2e(2)/h. The scatter around the integer values increases considerably with the number of quanta, and typically it is not possible to observe more than up to four quanta in these experiments. A detailed discussion is given of the statistical methods used in the analysis of the experimental data. The theoretical part of the paper addresses some questions posed by the experiment: Why can conductance quantization be observed, what is the origin of the scatter in the experimental data, and what is the origin of the scaling of the scattering with the number of conductance quanta? The theoretical discussion is based on a free-electron-like model where scattering from the boundary of the nanowire is included. The configurations of the nanowires are deduced from molecular dynamics simulations, which also give information about the mechanical properties of the system. We show that such a model can account semiquantitatively for several of the observed effects. One of the main conclusions of the theoretical analysis is that,; due to the plastic deformation of the nanowires formed by the STM, the typical length scale of the variations in the shape of the boundary is not an atomic radius but rather bye times that value. This is the reason why scattering is sufficiently small to make conductance quantization observable by STM.

KW - ADHESION

KW - TRANSPORT

KW - SCALE

KW - TRANSITION

KW - POINT CONTACTS

KW - SURFACES

KW - BALLISTIC-RESISTANCE

KW - SCANNING-TUNNELING-MICROSCOPY

KW - STEPS

KW - CONSTRICTIONS

UR - http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.52.8499

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.8499

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.8499

JO - Physical Review B Condensed Matter

JF - Physical Review B Condensed Matter

SN - 0163-1829

IS - 11

VL - 52

SP - 8499

EP - 8514

ER -