• Author: Danielsen, Pernille Høgh

    University of Copenhagen

  • Author: Møller, Peter

    University of Copenhagen

  • Author: Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    National Research Centre for the Working Environment

  • Author: Sharma, Anoop Kumar

    Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, 2860, Søborg, Denmark

  • Author: Wallin, Håkan

    National Research Centre for the Working Environment

  • Author: Bossi, Rossana

    Aarhus University

  • Author: Autrup, Herman

    Aarhus University

  • Author: Mølhave, Lars

    Aarhus University

  • Author: Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    CEA Grenoble, France

  • Author: Briede, Jacob Jan

    Maastricht University

  • Author: Martinus de Kok, Theo

    Maastricht University

  • Author: Loft, Steffen

    University of Copenhagen

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Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparingWSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area. In both cell types, all extensively characterized PM samples (1.25-100 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites assessed by the comet assay with WSPM being most potent. The WSPM contained more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size than PM collected from ambient air. All four types of PM combined increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-20-deoxyguanosine dose-dependently in A549 cells, whereas there was no change in the levels of etheno-adducts or bulky DNA adducts. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the proinflammatory genes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-R as well as the oxidative stress gene heme oxygenase-1 was upregulated in the THP-1 cells especially by WSPM and ambient PM sampled from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress response gene expression in cultured human cells.
Original languageEnglish
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Publication date2011
Volume24
Pages168-184
ISSN0893-228X
DOIs
StatePublished
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 51
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