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Traditional district heating (DH) systems are becoming uneconomic as the number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements increases. To keep DH competitive in the future, heat losses in DH networks need to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH as much as possible. This requires a review and improvement of a DH network, in-house substations, and the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system, with the focus on user comfort, hygiene, overall cost and energy efficiency. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of low-temperature district heating (LTDH) with an entry-to-substation temperature around 50 °C. To this end we developed a numerical model for an instantaneous LTDH substation that takes into consideration the effect of service pipes. The model has been verified and can be used for the further optimization of the whole concept as well for individual components. The results show that the way that the service pipe is operated has a significant effect on waiting time for DHW, heat loss, and overall cost. Furthermore, the service pipe should be kept warm by using a bypass in order to fulfil the comfort requirements for DHW instantaneously prepared.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy
Publication date2012
Volume41
Issue1
Pages392-400
ISSN0360-5442
DOIs
StatePublished

Conference

Conference23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems
Number23
CountrySwitzerland
CityLausanne
Period14/06/1017/06/10
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 4

Keywords

  • District heating, Low temperature, DHW, Numerical model, Simulation, Bypass
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