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Bioluminescence is a common phenotype in marine bacteria, such As Vibrio and Photobacterium species, and can be quorum regulated by N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). We extracted a molecule that induced a bacterial AHL monitor (Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 [pZLR4]) from packed cod fillets, which spoil due to growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum. Interestingly, AHLs were produced by 13 nonbioluminescent strains of P. phosphoreum isolated from the product. Of 177 strains of P. phosphoreum (including 18 isolates from this study), none of 74 bioluminescent strains elicited a reaction in the AHL monitor, whereas 48 of 103 nonbioluminescent strains did produce AHLs. AHLs were also detected in Aeromonas spp., but not in Shewanella strains. Thin-layer chromatographic profiles of cod extracts and P. phosphoreum culture supernatants identified a molecule similar in relative mobility (R-f value) and shape to N-(3-hydroxyoctanoyl)homoserine lactone, and the presence of this molecule in culture supernatants from a nonbioluminescent strain of P. phosphoreum was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry. Bioluminescence (in a non-AHL-producing strain of P. phosphoreum) was strongly up-regulated during growth, whereas AHL production in a nonbioluminescent strain of P. phosphoreum appeared constitutive. AHLs apparently did not influence bioluminescence, as the addition of neither synthetic AHLs nor supernatants delayed or reduced this phenotype in luminescent strains of P. phosphoreum. The phenotypes of nonbioluminescent P. phosphoreum strains regulated by AHLs remains to be elucidated.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Publication date2005
Volume71
Issue4
Pages2113-2120
ISSN0099-2240
StatePublished
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