• Author: Veldman, Kees

    Central Veterinary Institute

  • Author: Cavaco, Lina

    Division of Microbiology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Bülowsvej 27, 1790, København V, Denmark

  • Author: Mevius, Dik

    Central Veterinary Institute

  • Author: Battisti, Antonio

    Lazio e Toscana

  • Author: Franco, Alessia

    Lazio e Toscana

  • Author: Botteldoorn, Nadine

    Scientific Institute of Public

  • Author: Bruneau, Mireille

    Scientific Institute of Public Health Safety

  • Author: Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès

    Scientific Institute of Public Health Safety

  • Author: Cerny, Tomas

    State Veterinary Institute

  • Author: De Frutos Escobar, Cristina

    Laboratorio Central de Veterinaria de Algete

  • Author: Guerra, Beatriz

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

  • Author: Schroeter, Andreas

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

  • Author: Gutierrez, Montserrat

    Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

  • Author: Hopkins, Katie

    Health Protection Agency

  • Author: Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa

    Finnish Food Safety Authority

  • Author: Sunde, Marianne

    National Veterinary Institute

  • Author: Wasyl, Dariusz

    National Veterinary Research Institute

  • Author: Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    Division of Microbiology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

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OBJECTIVES: This study was initiated to collect retrospective information on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates in Europe and to identify the responsible genes. METHODS: Databases of national reference laboratories containing MIC values for Salmonella and E. coli isolated between 1994 and 2009 in animals, humans, food and the environment from 13 European countries were screened for isolates exhibiting a defined quinolone resistance phenotype, i.e. reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and nalidixic acid. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify the responsible PMQR genes. RESULTS: Screening of databases of 13 European countries resulted in a selection of 1215 Salmonella and 333 E. coli isolates. PMQR genes were identified in 59% of the Salmonella isolates and 15% of the E. coli isolates selected. In Salmonella, qnrS1 (n = 125) and variants of qnrB (n = 138) were frequently identified, whereas qnrA1 (n = 3) and aac(6')-1b-cr (n = 3) were rarely found. qnrD was detected in 22 Salmonella isolates obtained from humans and animals. In E. coli, qnrS1 was identified in 19 isolates and qnrB19 was found in one isolate. No qnrC or qepA genes were detected in either Salmonella or E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the occurrence and dissemination of PMQR genes in Salmonella and E. coli in Europe with a defined quinolone resistance phenotype. We also report the first detection of qnrD in Salmonella collected in Europe.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1278-1286
StatePublished - 2011
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 57


  • Qnr, Aac(6′)-1b-cr, PMQR, MICs
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ID: 5567592