Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2011

  • Author: Arumugam, Manimozhiyan

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Raes, Jeroen

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Pelletier, Eric

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Le Paslier, Denis

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Yamada, Takuji

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Mende, Daniel R.

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Fernandes, Gabriel R.

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Tap, Julien

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Bruls, Thomas

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Batto, Jean-Michel

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark

  • Author: Borruel, Natalia

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Casellas, Francesc

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Fernandez, Leyden

    Barcelona Supercomputing Center

  • Author: Gautier, Laurent

    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark

  • Author: Hansen, Torben

    University of Copenhagen2

  • Author: Hattori, Masahira

    The University of Tokyo Kashiwa Campus, Computational Biology Laboratory Bld

  • Author: Hayashi, Tetsuya

    University of Miyazaki, Frontier Science Research Center

  • Author: Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Wageningen University

  • Author: Kurokawa, Ken

    Tokyo Institute of Technology

  • Author: Leclerc, Marion

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Levenez, Florence

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Nielsen, Trine

    University of Copenhagen2

  • Author: Pons, Nicolas

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Poulain, Julie

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Qin, Junjie

    BGI-Shenzhen

  • Author: Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    CFB - Metagenomic Systems Biology, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kogle Alle 6, 2970, Hørsholm, Denmark

  • Author: Tims, Sebastian

    Wageningen University

  • Author: Torrents, David

    Barcelona Supercomputing Center

  • Author: Ugarte, Edgardo

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    Wageningen University

  • Author: Wang, Jun

    BGI-Shenzhen

  • Author: Guarner, Francisco

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Pedersen, Oluf

    University of Copenhagen2

  • Author: de Vos, Willem M.

    Wageningen University

  • Author: Brunak, Søren

    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Doré, Joel

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Antolín, María

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Artiguenave, François

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Blottiere, Hervé M.

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Almeida, Mathieu

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Brechot, Christian

    Institut Mérieux

  • Author: Cara, Carlos

    UCB Pharma SA

  • Author: Chervaux, Christian

    Danone Research

  • Author: Cultrone, Antonella

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Delorme, Christine

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Denariaz, Gérard

    Danone Research

  • Author: Dervyn, Rozenn

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Foerstner, Konrad U.

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Friss, Carsten

    Technical University of Denmark

  • Author: van de Guchte, Maarten

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Guedon, Eric

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Haimet, Florence

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Huber, Wolfgang

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: van Hylckama-Vlieg, Johan

    Danone Research

  • Author: Jamet, Alexandre

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Juste, Catherine

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Kaci, Ghalia

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Knol, Jan

    Danone Research

  • Author: Lakhdari, Omar

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Layec, Severine

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Le Roux, Karine

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Maguin, Emmanuelle

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Mérieux, Alexandre

    Institut Mérieux

  • Author: Melo Minardi, Raquel

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: M'rini, Christine

    Institut Mérieux

  • Author: Muller, Jean

    University of Strasbourg, INSERM

  • Author: Oozeer, Raish

    Danone Research

  • Author: Parkhill, Julian

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

  • Author: Renault, Pierre

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Rescigno, Maria

    Istituto Europeo di Oncologia

  • Author: Sanchez, Nicolas

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Sunagawa, Shinichi

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Torrejon, Antonio

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Turner, Keith

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

  • Author: Vandemeulebrouck, Gaetana

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Varela, Encarna

    University Hospital Vall d’Hebron

  • Author: Winogradsky, Yohanan

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Zeller, Georg

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

  • Author: Weissenbach, Jean

    Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

  • Author: Ehrlich, S. Dusko

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

  • Author: Bork, Peer

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory

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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Publication date2011
Volume473
Issue7346
Pages174-180
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
StatePublished
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 734
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