Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2012

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@article{5835aa828ecd497989210f1d28ad8ef2,
title = "Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?",
keywords = "pH, Swimming pool, Trihalomethane, Haloacetonitrile, Toxicity",
publisher = "Pergamon",
author = "Hansen, {Kamilla Marie Speht} and Sarah Willach and Maria Antoniou and Hans Mosbæk and Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen and Andersen, {Henrik Rasmus}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.008",
volume = "46",
number = "19",
pages = "6399--6409",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

A1 - Hansen,Kamilla Marie Speht

A1 - Willach,Sarah

A1 - Antoniou,Maria

A1 - Mosbæk,Hans

A1 - Albrechtsen,Hans-Jørgen

A1 - Andersen,Henrik Rasmus

AU - Hansen,Kamilla Marie Speht

AU - Willach,Sarah

AU - Antoniou,Maria

AU - Mosbæk,Hans

AU - Albrechtsen,Hans-Jørgen

AU - Andersen,Henrik Rasmus

PB - Pergamon

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl3 formation increased at decreasing pH whereas the formation of HAAs remained constant. Under our experimental conditions, the formation of NCl3 (suspected asthma inducing compound) at pH = 6.0 was an order of magnitude higher than at pH = 7.5. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bromide on DBP formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs in both absence and presence of bromide.

AB - This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl3 formation increased at decreasing pH whereas the formation of HAAs remained constant. Under our experimental conditions, the formation of NCl3 (suspected asthma inducing compound) at pH = 6.0 was an order of magnitude higher than at pH = 7.5. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bromide on DBP formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs in both absence and presence of bromide.

KW - pH

KW - Swimming pool

KW - Trihalomethane

KW - Haloacetonitrile

KW - Toxicity

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.008

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.008

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

IS - 19

VL - 46

SP - 6399

EP - 6409

ER -