View graph of relations

A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative for FMDV. In the Landhi dairy colony, Pakistan, a cohort of 179 apparently healthy animals was studied. On their arrival within the colony, thirty‐nine (22%) of these animals were found positive for FMDV RNA (serotype A was identified), while 130 (72.6%) had antibodies to FMDV non‐structural proteins. Thus, newly introduced animals may be a significant source of the disease in the colony. Only two animals from the cohort were detected as becoming positive for FMDV RNA during a follow‐up period of 4 months; however, only 10 animals remained negative for anti‐NSP antibodies during this period.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)429-440
StatePublished - 2012
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 10


  • FMD, Epidemiology, Subclinical infection, Preclinical infection
Download as:
Download as PDF
Select render style:
Download as HTML
Select render style:
Download as Word
Select render style:

ID: 10542569