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@article{47e3a2c09bc1403aab993e797d54b180,
title = "Consequences of field N2O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system",
keywords = "Environment and climate, Bioethanol and/or biogas, Carbon sequestration, Digestate recycled as fertilizer, Emission factor, Fossil fuel displacement, Grass–clover, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Rye and vetch straw, Whole crop maize, Agronomy, Energy, Nitrous-oxide emissions, Greenhouse-gas emissions, Vicia-villosa roth, Crop residues, Chemical-composition, Anaerobic-digestion, Biogas production, Swine manure, Clover-grass, Biomass, Miljø og klima",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.",
author = "Carter, {Mette Sustmann} and Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen and Stefan Heiske and Morten Jensen and Thomsen, {Sune Tjalfe} and Schmidt, {Jens Ejbye} and Anders Johansen and Per Ambus",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01132.x",
volume = "4",
number = "4",
pages = "435--452",
journal = "Global Change Biology. Bioenergy",
issn = "1757-1693",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Consequences of field N<sub>2</sub>O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system

A1 - Carter,Mette Sustmann

A1 - Hauggaard-Nielsen,Henrik

A1 - Heiske,Stefan

A1 - Jensen,Morten

A1 - Thomsen,Sune Tjalfe

A1 - Schmidt,Jens Ejbye

A1 - Johansen,Anders

A1 - Ambus,Per

AU - Carter,Mette Sustmann

AU - Hauggaard-Nielsen,Henrik

AU - Heiske,Stefan

AU - Jensen,Morten

AU - Thomsen,Sune Tjalfe

AU - Schmidt,Jens Ejbye

AU - Johansen,Anders

AU - Ambus,Per

PB - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - <p>One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O). Previous studies on biofuel production systems showed that emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O may counterbalance a substantial part of the global warming reduction, which is achieved by fossil fuel displacement. In this study, we related measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub>, which was obtained when agricultural biomasses were used for biofuel production. The analysis included five organically managed feedstocks (viz. dried straw of sole cropped rye, sole cropped vetch and intercropped rye–vetch, as well as fresh grass–clover and whole crop maize) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass into biofuel. The scenarios were (i) bioethanol, (ii) biogas and (iii) coproduction of bioethanol and biogas. In the last scenario, the biomass was first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the effluent from this process was utilized for biogas production. The net GHG reduction was calculated as the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub>, where the N<sub>2</sub>O emission was subtracted. This value did not account for fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from farm machinery and during conversion processes that turn biomass into biofuel. The greatest net GHG reduction, corresponding to 700–800 g CO<sub>2</sub> m<sup>−2</sup>, was obtained by biogas production or coproduction of bioethanol and biogas on either fresh grass–clover or whole crop maize. In contrast, biofuel production based on lignocellulosic crop residues (i.e. rye and vetch straw) provided considerably lower net GHG reductions (≤215 g CO2 m<sup>−2</sup>), and even negative numbers sometimes. No GHG benefit was achieved by fertilizing the maize crop because the extra crop yield, and thereby increased biofuel production, was offset by enhanced N<sub>2</sub>O emissions.</p>

AB - <p>One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O). Previous studies on biofuel production systems showed that emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O may counterbalance a substantial part of the global warming reduction, which is achieved by fossil fuel displacement. In this study, we related measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub>, which was obtained when agricultural biomasses were used for biofuel production. The analysis included five organically managed feedstocks (viz. dried straw of sole cropped rye, sole cropped vetch and intercropped rye–vetch, as well as fresh grass–clover and whole crop maize) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass into biofuel. The scenarios were (i) bioethanol, (ii) biogas and (iii) coproduction of bioethanol and biogas. In the last scenario, the biomass was first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the effluent from this process was utilized for biogas production. The net GHG reduction was calculated as the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub>, where the N<sub>2</sub>O emission was subtracted. This value did not account for fossil fuel-derived CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from farm machinery and during conversion processes that turn biomass into biofuel. The greatest net GHG reduction, corresponding to 700–800 g CO<sub>2</sub> m<sup>−2</sup>, was obtained by biogas production or coproduction of bioethanol and biogas on either fresh grass–clover or whole crop maize. In contrast, biofuel production based on lignocellulosic crop residues (i.e. rye and vetch straw) provided considerably lower net GHG reductions (≤215 g CO2 m<sup>−2</sup>), and even negative numbers sometimes. No GHG benefit was achieved by fertilizing the maize crop because the extra crop yield, and thereby increased biofuel production, was offset by enhanced N<sub>2</sub>O emissions.</p>

KW - Environment and climate

KW - Bioethanol and/or biogas

KW - Carbon sequestration

KW - Digestate recycled as fertilizer

KW - Emission factor

KW - Fossil fuel displacement

KW - Grass–clover

KW - Methane

KW - Nitrous oxide

KW - Rye and vetch straw

KW - Whole crop maize

KW - Agronomy

KW - Energy

KW - Nitrous-oxide emissions

KW - Greenhouse-gas emissions

KW - Vicia-villosa roth

KW - Crop residues

KW - Chemical-composition

KW - Anaerobic-digestion

KW - Biogas production

KW - Swine manure

KW - Clover-grass

KW - Biomass

KW - Miljø og klima

U2 - 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01132.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01132.x

JO - Global Change Biology. Bioenergy

JF - Global Change Biology. Bioenergy

SN - 1757-1693

IS - 4

VL - 4

SP - 435

EP - 452

ER -