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The blade element momentum (BEM) method is widely used for calculating the quasi-steady aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Recently, the BEM method has been expanded to include corrections for wake expansion and the pressure due to wake rotation (), and more accurate solutions can now be obtained in the blade root and tip sections. It is expected that this will lead to small changes in optimum blade designs. In this work, has been implemented, and the spanwise load distribution has been optimized to find the highest possible power production. For comparison, optimizations have been carried out using BEM as well. Validation of shows good agreement with the flow calculated using an advanced actuator disk method. The maximum power was found at a tip speed ratio of 7 using , and this is lower than the optimum tip speed ratio of 8 found for BEM. The difference is primarily caused by the positive effect of wake rotation, which locally causes the efficiency to exceed the Betz limit. Wake expansion has a negative effect, which is most important at high tip speed ratios. It was further found that by using , it is possible to obtain a 5% reduction in flap bending moment when compared with BEM. In short, allows fast aerodynamic calculations and optimizations with a much higher degree of accuracy than the traditional BEM model. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWind Energy
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)563-574
StatePublished - 2012
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 6


  • Energy, Engineering, Wind turbine, Aerodynamics, Optimization, Blade element momentum method, Wake expansion, Wake rotation
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