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A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere under industrial conditions is presented. The versatility of the polymer solar cell technology is demonstrated through the use of abstract forms for the active area, a flexible substrate, processing entirely from solution, complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show that the production technique is scalable and well suited for direct transfer to the printing industry employing existing production equipment. The production speed and cost analysis for the individual modules from this batch is discussed and a forecast for the high volume cost based on this method is given. Further, the points where significant cost reductions can be achieved are identified. The use of the solar cell as the power supply for a small radio and other small electronic circuits is demonstrated. Lastly, the operational stability under ambient conditions in the dark and under illumination is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)422-441
StatePublished - 2009
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 570


  • Polymer solar cells, Solar energy
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ID: 4334476